Taxonomy and Systematic
Taxonomy : the branch of science dealing with the study of principles and procedure of classification is called taxonomy. The term taxonomy was coined by A.P. de Candolle. Linnaeus is considered as Father of Taxonomy. Santapau is considered as Father of Indian Taxonomy. The fundamental elements of taxonomy are as follows :
- Characterization and identification : it is the determination of the similarities of an organism with an already known organism, based upon specific characters.
- Nomenclature :It is the determination is correct name of an organism according to established universal rules.
- Classification : It is grouping of organisms into convenient categories on the basis of easily observable
The classical taxonomy is based on observable morphological characters, however the modern taxonomy deals with several characters for the classification for the classification of organisms like.
- External and internal structure along with the structure of cell.
- Development process.
- Ecological information of organisms.
Systematic : the word “systematic” is derived from Latin word systema which means systematic arrangement of organisms. It was first used by Carolus Linnaeus. According to him, “systematic is the discipline of biology which deals with the kind and diversity of all organisms and the existing relationships amongst them.”
Generally, the terms such as classification, systematic and taxonomy are used interchangeably but some taxonomists like Simpson (1961) relate them with a separate field. He defined systematic as
“The study of diversity of organisms and all their comparative and evolutionary relationships based on comparative anatomy, comparative ecology, comparative physiology and comparative biochemistry.”
The main uses of systematic are as given below :
- It helps in providing knowledge of great diversity of animals and plants. It provides information regarding evolution which took place among plants and animals by knowing the distinction, relationship, habitat and habits. It thus, gives a vivid picture of entire organic diversity.
- It helps in the identification of fossils which give useful information about the phylogeny of organisms.
- Newly discovered organisms can be identified through systematic.