Abul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam, usually referred as Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam. Abdul Kalam was born on October 15, 1931, in Tamil Nadu. He was the eleventh President of India and served from 2002 to 2007. Before his term as president, he was a distinguished engineering visionary and was awarded Bharat Ratna in 1997 for his role as scientific advisor to the Indian government. Dr. Abdul Kalam is considered as a progressive mentor and innovator and is popularly known as the Missile Man of India. He has received honorary doctorates from more than thirty universities. In 1981, he was honoured with the Padma Bhushan by the Government of India and Padma Vibhushan in 1990.