Paragraph : 01
Human rights are those rights that are fundamental for the human life. Human rights are rights to certain claims and freedoms for all human beings all over the world. These rights, besides being fundamental and universal in character, assumed international dimension.
These rights ensure to make man free. Universalization of Rights without any distinction of any kind is a feature of human rights. These rights recognize the basic human needs and demands. Every country should ensure human rights to its citizens. The Human rights should find its place in the Constitution of every country.
Human rights in International Forums: Human rights are no longer concern of the people of any particular country. It has become an international issue.
The United Nations has adopted a Charter of Human Rights and it asks the governments to respect these rights of their citizens. On 10th day of December, 1948, the UN adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In the present day, world there is a lot of concern about the protection of human rights.
The problem about human rights varies from society to society. The entitlement of civil, political, economic, and social right of individuals varies from country to country according to the laws governing these rights of the citizens of that country.
Basic human rights: The basic human rights includes:
right to life, liberty and security of person,
right to freedom of speech,
freedom to movement,
right to take part in the governance of one’s country.
Economic and social rights: The second types of rights are economic and social rights. The rights included in this group are also very important. These includes:
right to work,
right to have a good standard of living,
right to rest and leisure,
right to education, and
right for equal pay for equal work.
Women’s rights are human rights: The UN has taken a great deal of interest in the abolition of discrimination against women.
Racial discrimination in South Africa: Racial discrimination is a serious instance of human rights violation. The policy of Apartheid was practiced in South Africa for a long time. Though the Black people formed the majority in South Africa, they were denied their political rights. The white people, who were a minority, were ruling them. However, the UN condemned the racist policy and passed a resolution in this regard.
Finally, South Africa witnessed a momentous change after long years of struggle when they elected a Black President, Mr. Nelson Mandela. The policy of ‘one person one vote’ was the basis for the election. Political and civil rights were given to all the people of South Africa.
Human rights in India: It is the duty of every nation to create such laws and conditions that protect the basic Human rights of its citizens. India being a democratic country provides such rights to its citizens and allows them certain rights including the freedom of expression. These rights, which are called ‘Fundamental Rights’ form an important part of the Constitution of India.
These rights are fundamental in three different ways.
First, these are basic human rights. As human beings we have the right to enjoy these rights.
Secondly, our Constitution gives us these fundamental rights and guarantees. These rights are necessary for the citizens of our country to act properly and live in a democratic manner.
Thirdly, the procedure for the effective enforcement of these guaranteed Fundamental Rights has been mentioned in the constitution itself. Every citizen of India has the right to move to a court of law if he/she is denied these rights. The Constitution is there to safeguard her/his rights.
Fundamental rights in India: The Constitution guarantees to us six Fundamental Rights. The six Fundamental Rights as mentioned in our Constitution are:
Right to Equality
Right to freedom
Right against Exploitation
Right to Freedom of Religion
Cultural and Educational Rights
Right to Constitutional Remedies.
Importance of human rights: The importance of the human rights movement is that it tells people that one cannot call a society a good and a just society until all its citizens enjoy these human rights. The human rights laws aims at eliminating unjust discrimination against any human being.
The concept of Human rights is based on the principle of human solidarity, cooperation, and development and access of all to the common heritage of humankind.
The impact and importance of human rights are so deep and strong that the constitutions of India, Indonesia, Costa Rica and other countries incorporated many of the provisions of rights codified in the said Declaration in their respective constitutions. This may be treated as landmark the history of progress of civilization.
The Charter of human rights exerts tremendous pressure on all political authorities. Strong vigilance is noticed throughout world against the violation of human rights.
Women empowerment: The issue of Women empowerment and inequality have been taken up as a Human rights issue. Several institutions, organizations are working hard to create awareness among the masses. It is high time that every person within the society come forward in support women in her fight for justice. She should be treated at par with men all venues of social framework. Her position need to be elevated.
Limitations: However, the Declaration of Human Rights is not above limitations.
These rights do not enjoy legal sanction.
These are somewhat but extra-legal and non-justifiable rights.
However, it remains to be said that the human rights enlisted in the international for are a firm resolve. Hence, the moral principles expressed through these rights, have deeper, and more profound and more lasting influence than any legal instrument.
Conclusion: Even today, there are several instances of human rights violation at various places of the world. There can be no permanent and regular prosperity of human beings unless every country or nation creates such conditions in which human rights are enjoyed by its natives.
Suggest External Readings:
United nations: Partner in the struggle against Apartheid.
Protect human rights (United Nations)
Paragraph : 02
Every human being is born with certain basic rights, such as life, health, freedom, justice and protection against exploitation and crime. These right are not granted by anyone or the government, but are inherent with every person, irrespective of caste, creed, colour. However, it is not uncommon to find exploitation of mankind, especially the victims of war, prisoners, slaves, apartheid, poor and illiterates. The human rights are often violated by the individuals, police, military and even the government.
Taking cognisance of this fact and concerned with the offence at international level, the United Nation on 10th December 1948, adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It enumerates the basic human rights, namely the right to free speech, freedom of movement, judicial rights and right to take part in governance of their-country.
The Social and Economic Rights include the right to equality without any discrimination of sex, caste, creed, race or colour. Further, the human rights include the right to live with dignity, right to rest and recreation and right of equal pay for equal work.
The main problem of human rights is their enforcement. Different countries have adopted different standards and different rights. In some societies civil and political rights are not statutory and obligatory. The United Nations and some international voluntary agencies are actively pursuing with such countries to adopt the doctrine of human rights. They raise their voice, whether it is unjust policies, official behaviour, discrimination or injustice.
The media and the press can play an important role in bringing to light suppressing and discriminating policies and actions of the government, individuals or bureaucracy. Demonstrations, strikes, public interest litigations, court cases and financial assistance are other prevalent methods to provide relief from violation of human rights.
Education, alleviation of poverty and awareness among the masses are essential to check the violation of human rights and to ensure basic freedoms of living, expression, justice, work and recreation. These are the basic charter of the Constitution, in the implementation of which the voluntary agencies, community and the people have an important role to play.