India is a vast country with second largest population and seventh largest land area in the world. The population of India is more than 1.2 billion.
There are 29 states mainly on the basis of linguistic lines. There are wide variety of languages and that of culture, festivals, dress and mode of living is even greater.
There lies cultural unity among Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, Buddhists and other communities in India.
On the north of India there are Himalayan mountain ranges. It protects India as its guardian. There is Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal and Arabian Ocean in the south, south-east and south-west respectively.
The highest point in India lies in the Kanchenjunga mountains. The longest river is River Ganga.
India has a tri-colored national flag. The three colors are saffron, white and green. The Ashok Chakra in the center of the India flag denotes righteousness.
The national anthem and song are ‘Jana Gana Mana? and ‘Vande Mataram? respectively. In the National Emblem, there are four lions standing back to back denoting courage and strength.
The civilization of Harappa and Indus Valley in India is believed to be more than 4000 years old. The Rig Vedic period started at around 1700 B.C. India was highly civilized and well developed by 500 B.C. India witnessed a golden period under Gupta Empire during 320 A.D and 500 A.D. The Delhi Sultanate ruled from 1206 to 1526. The Mughal period was from 1526 to 1857. Bahadur Shah II was the last Mughal Emperor. The British ruled thereafter. India got its independence on 15th August, 1947.
Several religions originated from India such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Jainism. Islam, Christianity and other religions also found its place in India.
There is no national language in India. There are many regional languages and several other local dialects. These languages mainly belong to Indo-Aryan and Dravadian family. There are 22 official languages in India.
The major Hindu Festivals are Diwali, Durga puja, Dussehra, Raksha Bandhan, Holi etc. The major Muslim festivals are Ramadan, Eid, Muharram, etc. The major Sikh festivals are Holla Mohalla, Vaisakhi, Guru Nanak Gurpurab, etc. The Christians celebrate Christmas, Good Friday, Easter, St. Valentine’s Day, etc.
New Delhi is the Capital city of India. The other metro cities are Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai. The other major cities are Bangalore, Mysore, Chandigarh, Raipur, etc.
Indian Culture has a rich history of more than four thousand years. The national culture of India aims for perfect blend of Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism, Christianity, Sikhism, and other wide variety of regional cultures.