James Clerk Maxwell
James Clerk Maxwell, (1831-79). Scottish physicist. Maxwell worked out the mathematical basis of Faraday’s theory of the relationship between electricity and magnetism. He also formulated an electromagnetic theory of light, believing that light, electricity, and magnetism were all phenomena of an all-pervasive substance called the ‘ether’. Though the concept of the `ether’ was later abandoned, Maxwell’s work led to major advances in science and technology. He also worked on the kinetic theory of gases and colour vision.