Battle of Ghagra (1529)
The Battle of Ghagra in 1529 was the last war of Babur in India. The battle was fought with the Afghans, on the confluence of the Ganga and its tributary, the Ghagara, on 6th May, 1529.
The Afgans fought under the leadership of Sultan Mahmud Lodi and Sultan Nusrat Shah (Sultan of Bengal). The Afghans were defeated by the army of Babur in this battle.
Sultan Mahmud Lodi, who had escaped from Khanua after Rana Sanga’s defeat, established himself in Bihar and gathered a large army which was estimated at one lakh strong. At the head of this force he advanced on Banaras and proceeded beyond it as far as Chunar. He laid siege to the fortress of Chunar; but as Babur proceeded against him, the Afghans were filled with consternation, raised the siege and withdrew. Babur pursued and drove them into Bengal.
Anxious to put an end to the Afghan threat once for all, Babur decided to bring them to battle. But he was at peace with Nusrat Shah of Bengal with whom the Afghan chiefs, headed by Mahmud Lodi, had taken shelter. So he opened negotiations with Nusrat Shah, but nothing came out of it. He was obliged, therefore, to send an ultimatum asking for a passage and in the event of refusal, holding him responsible for the consequences.
Babur fought a battle with the Afghans, on the confluence of the Ganga and its tributary, the Ghagara, on 6th May, 1529. In the conflict, which was though, boats and artillery were used by both sides. The Afghans were defeated. A treaty was now concluded between Babur and Nusrat Shah agreed not to give shelter to Babur’s enemies. This was Babur’s last battle in India. As the result of this contest he became the sovereign of Bihar, and the Afghan chiefs joined him with their troops. He was now in possession of this country from the Indus to Bihar and from the Himalayas to Gwalior and Chanderi. The Mughals had obtained possession of Multan, and, therefore, in the north-western corner of the country only Singh remained beyond the pale of Mughal rule.