Brief History of Ujjain
Ujjain has a glorious history. It was at one time the seat of the Viceroy of the great Emperor Ashoka, who was chiefly responsible for the spread of Buddhism throughout Asia.
After the fall of Ashoka’s dynasty, there was a period of strife. Then, according to legends, arose a remarkable person name Vikramaditya, who established a vast empire with Ujjain as its capital.
The Vikram Era, which is commonly used by the Hindus, owes its origin to him. At his court flourished nine gems of literature, the arts and music, including Kalidasa, the great Sanskrit playwright and poet.
In the reign of the Guptas of Kanuj, who founded a glorious empire in the whole of northern India, Ujjain was again made the seat of viceroyalty.
On the collapse of the Gupta Empire in the 6th century A.D., northern India was divided into a number of principalities ruled by Rajput dynasties.
In the 9th and 10th centuries, Ujjain was the capital of Paramar kings who later moved to Dhar.
Iltutmish of Delhi sacked Ujjain in 1235. For the next 500 years or so, Ujjain was under Muslim rule which, however, did not affect its importance as a Hindu religious centre and as a centre of trade. In 1750, Ujjain passed into the hands of the Scindias and it was their capital till 1880.