Home » Biochemistry 12 » Biochemistry Notes for Class 12 Topic “Carbohydrates-Introduction” Complete Notes for Class 12



A carbohydrate is a large biological molecule, or macromolecule, consisting only of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O), usually with a hydrogen:oxygen atom ratio of 2:1. Carbohydrates are technically hydrates of carbon, structurally it is more accurate to view them as polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones.


After reading this lesson, you will be able to:

define carbohydrates
classify Common Carbohydrates
describe the sources and composition of carbohydrates
explain the Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates.


Carbohydrates are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones, or compounds that can be hydrolyzed to them. Carbohydrate is an organic compound comprising only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, usually with a hydrogen: oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water). Carbohydrates are technically hydrates of carbon. The empirical formula is Cn(H2O)n .

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