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“Hormones Hormones- Introduction of Hormones Hormones– ” Biochemistry Notes for Class 12 Complete Notes for Class 12

Hormones Hormones Introduction                   A hormone is a chemical that acts as a messenger transmitting a signal from one cell to another. When it binds to another cell which is the target of the message, the hormone can alter several aspects of cell function, including cell growth, metabolism, or other function. Hormones can be classified according to chemical composition, solubility properties, location...
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“Minerals-Selenium – ” Biochemistry Notes for Class 12 Complete Notes for Class 12

Selenium The normal limit of Selenium for human consumption is 50-100 mg/day and the normal serum level is 50-100 mg/day. Selenium dependent enzymes include glutathione Peroxidase and 5-de-iodinase. Selenium concentration in testis is thehighest in adult. It is very necessary for normal development and maturation of sperm. Selenium toxicity could be termed as selenosis. The toxicity symptoms include hair loss, falling of nails, diarrhea, weight loss and garlicky odor in...
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“Minerals-Copper – ” Biochemistry Notes for Class 12 Complete Notes for Class 12

Copper Total human body contains about 100 mg of copper and are encountered in muscle, liver, bone marrow, brain, kidney, heart and in hairs. Enzymes such as cytochrome oxidase, tyrosinase, lysyl oxidase, allanine synthase, monoamine oxidase, superoxide dismutase and phenol oxidase contains copper. The normal copper limit for human are 1.5 to 3 mg/day. The main sources of copper are cereals, meat, liver, nuts and green leafy vegetables. From the...
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“Minerals- Magnesium– ” Biochemistry Notes for Class 12 Complete Notes for Class 12

 Magnesium Optimal level of Magnesium for human consumption ranges 300-400 mg/day. The main source of Magnesium includes cereals, beans, leafy vegetables and fish. The normal serum level of Magnesium is 1.8 to 2.2. mg/dl. Functions of Magnesium (a) Irritability of neuromuscular tissues is lowered by Magnesium (b) Magnesium deficiency leads to decrease in Insulin dependent uptake of glucose (c) Magnesium supplementation improves glucose toleranceDecrease in Magnesium content leads to the...
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“Minerals- Phosphorus– ” Biochemistry Notes for Class 12 Complete Notes for Class 12

Phosphorus    Total body content of phosphorus is 1 kg. Bone posses 80 % of total phosphorus and muscle contains 10 % of total phosphorus. Human body requires 500 mg of phosphorus per day. Milk is the good source of phosphorus and it containsabout 100 mg/dl of phosphrous.  Apart from milk, cereals, nuts and meat are moderate sources of phosprous. Serum level of phosphate is 3-4 mg/dl for adults and...
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“Minerals-Calcium – ” Biochemistry Notes for Class 12 Complete Notes for Class 12

Calcium   Total calcium in the human body is 1 to 1.5kg, out of which 99% is seen in bone and 1% in extracellular fluid. The main source of calcium is milk. But in India cereals is major source of calcium. The daily requirement of calcium for child is 1200mg/day and for adult it is 500mg/day.  During pregnancy /lactation the calcium requirement is 1500mg/day. The absorption of calcium takes place...
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“Minerals- Introduction of Minerals– ” Biochemistry Notes for Class 12 Complete Notes for Class 12

Minerals Introduction Minerals are indispensable part of a complete diet of farm animals. In this unit, dietary essential minerals functions, factors affecting the requirements and sources will be discussed. Minerals are essential for the normal growth and maintance of the body. If the daily requirement is more than 100mg/day they are called major elements and if the daily requirements is less than 100mg/day they are called minor elements. The roles...
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