Marie Stopes, (1880-1958). Scottish advocate of birth control. A botanist and palaeontologist by training, she held university posts in Manchester and London. Seeing contraception as a way of improving marriages rather than simply a means of decreasing poverty, she founded the first birth-control clinic, at Holloway, London, in 1921. Despite initial opposition from moralists and the medical profession, she influenced the acceptance of contraception by the Church of England.