Botany Notes “”Kingdom Systems of Classification” Biological Classification” Botany Chapter 2, for Class 12-CBSE

Kingdom Systems of Classification 1.Two Kingdom Classification : It was given by Linnaeus. Traditionally all the organisms of the world were divided into two kingdoms- the animal kingdom (Animalia) and the plant kingdom (Plantae). The major criterion of classification  was the presence or absence of cell wall. Other criteria’s were locomotion, mode of nutrition, response to external stimuli etc.  Shortcomings of two –kingdom system of classification : Two- kingdom system...
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Botany Notes “Introduction of Biological Classification” Botany Chapter 2, for Class 12-CBSE

Introduction The purpose of biological classification is to organize the vast number of known plants and animals into categories that could be named and easily remembered and studied. As a result, the study of one organism of a group gives us the idea about the rest of the  member of that particular group. Related posts: Botany Notes “Biodiversity” for Class 12-CBSE Botany Notes “Need for classification, What is Living” for...
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Botany Notes “Important Questions of What is Living” Chapter 1, for Class 12-CBSE

Which one of the following group of taxa does not represent similar category in hierarchy? Potato, brinjal and tomato Tiger, lion and leopard Wheat, monocots and angiosperms Wheat, rice and mango Which one of the following obligate category in taxonomic hierarchy will have maximum number of common characters? Family Class Order Species Select incorrect match w.r.t. mango Family – Anacardiaceae Order – Sapindaceae Class – Dicotyledonae Division – Angiospermae Select...
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Botany Notes “Taxonomical Aids, What is Living” Chapter 1, for Class 12-CBSE

TAXONOMICAL AIDS The laboratory and field studies are required for identification of various species and their placement in taxonomical hierarchy. The information thus gathered about the species, needs to be stored for future use. The taxonomical aids developed by biologists have established certain procedures and techniques to store and preserve the information as well the specimens. Botanical Gardens From the time of Theophrastus, gardens have contributed to the science of...
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Botany Notes “Types of Species, What is Living” Chapter 1, for Class 12-CBSE

Types of Species  Morphospecies : Species erected on the basis of morphological characters only. Taxonomic species : Species having a definite binomial name. Sibling species : true species which do not interbreed, but are otherwise difficult to separate on the basis of morphological characters alone. Allopatric species : Species having exclusive areas of geographic distribution. Sympatric species : Species having overlapping areas of geographic distribution . Parapatric species : Species...
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Botany Notes “Taxonomy Categories, What is Living” Chapter 1, for Class 12-CBSE

TAXONOMIC CATEGORIES Classification is not a single step process. It involves hierarchy of steps in which each step represents a rank or category. The category is a part of overall taxonomic arrangement. So, it is known as the taxonomic category. All categories together make taxonomic hierarchy. Each category is also termed as a unit of classification. It represents a rank and is commonly called as taxon. The taxon must be...
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Botany Notes “Nomenclature, What is Living” Chapter 1 for Class 12-CBSE

NOMENCLATURE There is a need to standardize the naming of living organisms, such that a particular organism is known by same name all over the world. A variety of nomenclatural methods are described below : Vernacular name : Names in local or common language are called vernacular names. So, many vernacular names exist for an organism in different languages. These may vary from place to place. Scientific names : These...
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Botany Notes “Taxonomy and Systematic, What is Living” for Class 12-CBSE

Taxonomy and Systematic Taxonomy : the branch of science dealing with the study of principles and procedure of classification  is called taxonomy. The term taxonomy was coined by A.P. de Candolle. Linnaeus is considered as Father of Taxonomy. Santapau is considered as Father of Indian Taxonomy. The fundamental elements of taxonomy are as follows : Characterization and identification : it is the determination of the similarities of an organism with...
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